What Do I Need To Bring To The Range ?
Should I Bring My Own Lunch ?
And the answer is yes.
Please bring your own light lunch, some snacks & plenty of drinking water to stay dehydrated .
Jeff Cooper's Four Rules
National Rifle Association provides a similar set of rules
The United States Marine Corps four firearm safety rules
Canadian Firearms Program Four Firearm safety rules "ACTS"
Malfunctions associated with the firing pin of a firearm, or with the primer and/or powder within a cartridge include failures to discharge (misfires, "duds"), delayed discharge (hang fires), and incomplete or insufficient discharge (squibs). A misfire is when the cartridge does not fire after it is struck by the firing pin. A hangfire is when the firing pin strikes the cartridge, but there is a delay of some seconds before the cartridge finally fires. A squib is when an underpowered round is fired, perhaps with an insufficient amount of powder in the case, and the bullet lodges in the bore. If the firearm is fired again, the barrel can peel back, severely damaging the weapon and injuring the shooter.
In each case, the shooter should wait for a period of time, commonly recommended between 25 seconds, up to two minutes, with the firearm pointed in a safe direction, then carefully remove the magazine, extract any mis-fed or misfired cartridge(s), and, with the breech opened carefully, check to ensure there is not a bullet or other obstruction lodged in the bore of the barrel. If there is an obstruction, and a subsequent round is fired, the firearm can fail explosively resulting in serious injury. Misfired rounds should be disposed of properly, usually in a special container for live ammo that failed to fire after ejecting round; such rounds should not be simply disposed of in the trash.
A slam fire is when a cartridge fires immediately upon being chambered, before a trigger squeeze, and is most often caused by a floating firing pin that becomes obstructed by debris, or by an improperly raised primer that is installed on a cartridge case. A slamfire can also be caused by a softer primer being used than normally recommended, commonly in military firearms, which usually use cartridges with relatively hard primers.
Out-of-battery discharges occur when a cartridge is not correctly secured by the bolt but can be fired by the firearm's firing pin. Out-of-battery discharges can be initiated by either the operator deliberately releasing the firing pin or as a slamfire. Out-of-battery discharges often cause extreme damage to the firearm, particularly on the bolt, firing pin, magazine, and receiver as well as injure the operator and nearby observers. Eye damage and blinding are common injuries caused by out-of-battery firings. Eye protection, such as shooting glasses, are highly recommended for avoiding eye injuries. Out-of-battery discharges can be avoided by careful understanding of the firearm's operating mechanism.
Types of jams include failures to feed, extract, or eject a cartridge; failure to fully cycle after firing; and failure of a recoil- or gas-operated firearm to lock back when empty (largely a procedural hazard, as a "slide lock" is a visual cue that the firearm's ammunition supply is empty). When a jam occurs, the handler should exercise extreme caution as a cartridge whose primer has been struck and which has been deformed in a jam can discharge unexpectedly (in a "hang-fire"). One method of quickly clearing a jammed semi-automatic weapon is tap rack bang.
Firearms may also fire unintentionally for several reasons, including dropping the weapon or when a firearm receives any hard mechanical shocks. Similarly, unintentional firing may occur due to faulty triggers, or excessive heat buildup in the chamber which leads to the propellant cooking off. To prevent accidental firing when firearms are dropped or jarred, experts often suggest using modern firearm designs that have safety features such as a transfer bar or a firing pin block which prevent the firing pin from striking the primer unless the trigger is squeezed. For older firearms without these features, experts suggest that they should be carried without a round in the chamber, or with the firing pin resting on an empty chamber in the case of revolvers.
Firearms may undergo catastrophic failure (a "kaBoom" or "kB") due to various causes, some caused by mishandling and others by poor design, weakened parts or the use of ammunition for which the firearm was not designed, but which will chamber and fire nonetheless. Barrels may become blocked by foreign material, such as dirt, snow, or even water. For that reason, the muzzle should never be allowed to rest on the ground or allowed to accumulate precipitation. Another form of mishandling is the use of a cartridge that generates more pressure than the firearm was designed for. This can occur through faulty handloading, or the use of overpressure ammunition (+P or +P+) or magnum loads in firearms not rated for them.
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